Pengaruh penggorengan belut sawah (Monopterus albus) terhadap komposisi asam amino, asam lemak, kolesterol dan mineral

Ika Astiana, Nurjanah ., Ruddy Suwandi, Anggraeni Ashory Suryani, Taufik Hidayat

Abstract


Abstract. The nutrition contains on eel flash aremainly amino acids, fatty acids, cholesterol, and mineral. The chemical content of foods are change during frying process. The aim of this research was to studythe rendemen, proximate composition (moisture, ashes, protein, and fat content), and analyzing the influence of deep fryingon amino acids, fatty acids, cholesterol, and mineralof eel. The research  measures were eel morfometric which includes length, diameter, circumference, total weight, yield, proximat,  amino acids, fatty acids, cholesterol, and mineral analysis on fresh eel and  after frying in 180 oC temperature for 5 minutes.Rendemen of fried eel reducedabout 26%. The increasing of  proximate levels were found on ashes by 2.56% and  fat by 14.47% while water, protein, and carbohydrate were decreased about 55.43%, 2.84%, and 14.19% respectively. All of the eel amino acids were decrease after deep frying. The highest non essensial amino acid on fresh and fried eel were glutamic acids by 12,89 g/100g and 9,06 g/100g respectively, and essensial amino acid were lisin by 7,13 g/100g and 4,91 g/100g respectively. Limit amino acid on fresh and fried eel were histidine by 1,54 g/100g and 1,18 g/100g respectively.Deep frying could increase palmitic acid by 17.37%, oleic acid by 24.31%,and EPA by 1.42%. Cholesterol content average of fresh eel was 30.15 mg /100 grams and fried eel was 170.44 mg /100 grams. Calcium, natrium, kalium, magnesium, iron, and zinc are decrease and the copper wereincrease.

Keywords : composition; eel; heating; nutrition; processing

Abstrak. Kandungan gizi dalam daging belut sawah diantaranya adalah asam amino, asam lemak, kolesterol, dan mineral. Proses penggorengan dapat mempengaruhi kandungan kimia suatu bahan pangan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari rendemen, komposisi proksimat (air, abu, protein, dan lemak) serta menganalisis pengaruh penggorengan terhadap kandungan asam amino, asam lemak, kolesterol, dan mineral belut sawah. Penelitian mencakup pengukuran morfometrik belut sawah segar yang meliputi panjang, diameter, lingkar badan, dan berat total, pengukuran rendemen, analisis proksimat, analisis asam amino, asam lemak, kolesterol, dan analisis mineral pada belut sawah segar dan setelah penggorengan dengan suhu 180 oC selama 5 menit.Rendemen belut goreng mengalami susut sebesar 26%. Perubahan kadar proksimat adalah peningkatan kadar abu sebesar 2,56% dan peningkatan kadar lemak sebesar 14,47%. Penurunan terjadi pada kadar air yaitu sebesar 55,43%, protein sebesar 2,84%, dan karbohidrat sebesar 14,19%. Keseluruhan kandungan asam amino belut mengalami penurunan setelah penggorengan. Asam amino non esensial tertinggi pada belut sawah segar dan goreng adalah asam glutamat yaitu 12,89 g/100g dan 9,06 g/100g, sedangkan asam amino esensial yang tertinggi adalah lisin yaitu 7,13 g/100g dan 4,91 g/100g. Asam amino pembatas pada belut sawah segar dan goreng adalah histidin yaitu 1,54 g/100g dan 1,18 g/100g. Proses penggorengan dapat meningkatkan kandungan asam palmitat sebesar 17,37%, asam oleat sebesar 24,31%, dan EPA sebesar 1,42%. Kandungan kolesterol rata-rata belut segar adalah 30,15 mg/100 gram dan belut goreng adalah 170,44 mg/100 gram.Mineral  kalsium, natrium, kalium, magnesium, besi, dan seng juga mengalami penurunan sedangkan tembaga mengalami kenaikan.

Kata kunci :belut sawah; komposisi; gizi; pemanasan; pengolahan            


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.13170/depik.1.1.2366

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