Komunitas perifiton dan karakteristik fisika kimia sebagai indikator kualitas perairan di daerah aliran sungai (DAS) Mamberamo Provinsi Papua

Dwirastina Mirna, Dwi Atminarso, Arif Wibowo

Abstract


The waters of the Mamberamo watershed are around 7.7 million hectares. Some territorial waters are surrounded by jungles that are rich in unique biodiversity. Diverse biodiversity must be accompanied by a state of good water quality. So that the monitoring of water quality is very good in terms of physical and chemical physics parameters. Monitoring using chemical physics parameters has been widely used, but using aquatic biota is still rare, so it is expected to be more assertive in exposing the state of river damage. Aquatic biota used is periphyton. Periphyton has the potential to be a study of ecological indicators, a major producer in the food chain and its inherent nature in aquatic substrates. The purpose of this study was to determine the diversity of the periphyton community, determine the quality of waters in terms of chemical physics in the Mamberamo watershed and see the relationship between the two parameters. The method of determining the location was purposive sampling with descriptive analysis of the correlation results. Field observations and sampling were carried out on three tributaries and ponds in the form of flood-exposed lakes in the Membramo watershed in February, May, August and October 2016. The results showed the highest periphyton composition of Bacillariophyceae class followed by Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae. The diversity value of the Mamberamo river is 1 <H '= 3 which indicates moderate diversity, and the dominance index value ranges from 0.15 to 0.45, which indicates that there is no species that dominates in the waters of the Mamberamo River. Based on the results of the water quality assessment in the presence of periphyton and the physical chemistry characteristics of the water, it is found that the criteria for river water quality are classified as good and not polluted.

Keywords:
Ecological indicators
Chemical physics characteristics
Periphyton
Mamberamo River
Papua

ABSTRAK
Luas perairan DAS Mamberamo berkisar 7,7 juta hektar. Sebagian wilayah perairan dikeliling oleh hutan rimba yang kaya akan keanekaragaman hayati yang unik. Keanekaragaman hayati yang beragam harus disertai keadaan kualitas air yang baik. Sehingga pemantauan kualitas perairan sangat perlu baik ditinjau dari parameter fisika kimia dan biologi. Pemantauan menggunakan parameter fisika kimia telah banyak digunakan, tetapi menggunakan biota perairan masih jarang ,sehingga diharapkan dapat lebih tegas dalam mengekspresikan keadaan kerusakan sungai. Biota perairan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah perifiton. Perifiton berpotensi sebagai kajian indikator ekologis, produsen utama dalam rantai makanan serta sifatnya yang menempel di substrat perairan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui keragaman komunitas perifiton, mengetahui kualitas perairan dari segi fisika kimia di DAS Mamberamo serta melihat hubungan antara kedua parameter tersebut. Metode penentuan lokasi purposive sampling dengan analisis deskripitif dari hasil korelasi. Pengamatan lapangan dan pengambilan sampel dilakukan pada tiga aliran anak sungai dan telaga yang berupa danau paparan banjir di DAS Membramo pada Februari, Mei, Agustus dan Oktober 2016. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan komposisi perifiton tertinggi kelas Bacillariophyceae diikuti Chlorophyceae dan Cyanophyceae. Nilai keanekaragaman sungai Mamberamo adalah 1<H’=3 yang menyatakan keanekaragaman sedang, dan nilai indeks dominasi berkisar 0,15-0,45 yang menandakan bahwa tidak ada jenis yang mendominasi di perairan Sungai Mamberamo. Berdasarkan hasil penilaian kualitas air secara keberadaan perifiton dan karakteristik fisika kimia air maka didapat kriteria kualitas perairan sungai yang tergolong bagus dan belum tercemar.

Kata kunci:
Indikator ekologis
Karakteristik fisika kimia
Perifiton
Sungai Mamberamo
Papua


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.13170/depik.9.3.16497

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