Kajian Kualitatif Dampak Bantuan Pemerintah pada Peternakan Sapi Potong Menggunakan Pendekatan Model

Novie Andri Setianto

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Pemerintah telah mengimplementasikan banyak program untuk meningkatkan populasi sapi di Indonesia, namun untuk memenuhi kebutuhan daging nasional Indonesia masih tergantung pada impor. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkaji dampak bantuan pemerintah terhadap kinerja kelompok peternak sapi potong, terutama pada aspek sosial ekonomi. Pemodelan kualitatif menggunakan Causal Loop Diagram (CLD) dipilih untuk memetakan hubungan antar elemen yang terkait. Penelitian dilakukan dengan observasi langsung, wawancara semi-terstruktur, dan lokakarya pada dua kelompok ternak di Kabupaten Banjarnegara dan Banyumas. Diagram menunjukkan bahwa dalam di dalam sistem teridentifikasi enam buah loops yang terbagi atas tiga loops penyeimbang dan tiga loops saling memperkuat. Berdasarkan studi ini dapat diketahui bahwa program pemerintah yang pada awalnya didesain untuk memacu populasi sapi potong, pada kenyataanya di level peternak tidak sepenuhnya teradopsi dengan baik. Peternak hanya mengadopsi aktifitas yang dinilai lebih mudah dan lebih cepat mendatangkan keuntungan. Besarnya nilai bantuan berupa uang tunai yang langsung masuk ke rekening kelompok memicu keinginan peternak untuk dapat memperoleh keuntungan secepat-cepatnya, sehingga peternak lebih memilih penggemukan yang memiliki siklus lebih cepat.

 

(Qualitative modelling of the impact of government grant on beef cattle farming performance

ABSTRACT. The Government of Indonesia has introduced various programs to increase the cattle population. However, Indonesia still relies on imports to meet national demand. This study aimed to explore the impact of government program on the performance of farmer groups, particularly in socioeconomic aspect. Qualitative modelling using Causal Loop Diagram (CLD) of System Dynamics methodology was applied to connect the linkages among elements. A series of observations, semi-structured interviews, and workshops were undertaken involving two farmer groups from two districts; Banjarnegara and Banyumas. CLD showed a total of 6 loops; 3 balancing and 3 reinforcing loops. Each loop represented certain behaviour of the system. The study revealed that the program which initially designed to build engine of growth to boost population from farmers’ group level were not entirely implemented as it is. There were indications of selective adoption and side tracking. Farmers tended to prefer activities which more profitable and generate cash fasterly. A large amount of cash flow into farmers bank account provoked farmers to get immediate benefit, thus farmers choose the fattening over breeding which considered having shorter production cycle and disregarding the breeding which took longer time to produce cash.


Keywords


model kualitatif; daging; sapi potong; sistem dinamik; pemikiran sistemik; qualitative model; beef; cattle; system dynamics; systems thinking

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.17969/agripet.v16i2.5696

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