Iklim Mikro dan Respon Fisiologis Sapi Pesisir di Dataran Rendah dan Dataran Tinggi Sumatera Barat

Yetmaneli Yetmaneli, B. P. Purwanto, Rudi Priyanto, Wasmen Manalu

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Penelitian bertujuan melihat potensi iklim mikro dan respon fisiologis sapi Pesisir yang dipelihara di dataran rendah (Kota Padang (0-300 m dpl )) dan dataran tinggi (BPTU Padang Mengatas (> 600 m dpl)) Sumatera Barat. Materi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini 8 ekor sapi Pesisir, variabel yang diukur terdiri dari 2 aspek yaitu lingkungan abiotik dan aspek fisiologis sapi Pesisir. Aspek lingkungan abiotik berupa suhu lingkungan (Ta), kelembapan udara (RH) serta Temperature Humidity Index (THI). Variabel fisiologis sapi meliputi suhu rektal (Tr), suhu kulit (Ts), frekuensi pernapasan (RR) dan denyut jantung (HR). Tr dan TS digunakan menghitung suhu tubuh sapi (Tb). Tr dan RR digunakan menghitung Heat Tolerance Coefficient (HTC). Uji beda (t-test) digunakan untuk mengetahui ada tidaknya perbedaan kondisi iklim dan respon fisiologis sapi Pesisir di dataran rendah dan tinggi Sumatera Barat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan potensi iklim di dataran rendah adalah rerata suhu lingkungan 29,96°C, rerata kelembapan 64,22%, rerata THI 79,96 sedangkan potensi iklim di dataran tinggi adalah rerata suhu lingkungan 25,42°C, rerata kelembapan 69,48%, rerata THI 74,3. Rerata daya tahan panas sapi di dataran rendah 1,78 dan dataran tinggi 1,82. Kesimpulan penelitian menunjukkan potensi iklim dataran rendah untuk pemeliharaan sapi termasuk zona cekaman panas sedangkan dataran tinggi dalam cekaman ringan. Kondisi fisiologis sapi Pesisir di dataran rendah yang berbeda dengan sapi yang di dataran tinggi adalah suhu rektal, suhu kulit, suhu tubuh dan denyut jantung sedangkan frekuensi pernapasan didapatkan sama di kedua dataran. Daya tahan panas sapi Pesisir cukup baik ditemui di kedua dataran Sumatera Barat.

 

(Microclimate and physiological responses of Pesisir cattle at lowland and highland of West Sumatra)

ABSTRACT. This research aimed to investigate the potential of microclimate and physiological responses of Pesisir cattle that are maintained in lowland (Padang City (0-300 m asl)) and highland (Padang Mengatas BPTU (> 600 m asl)) in West Sumatra. The experimental animals were 8 pesisir cattle. The measured variables were abiotic environment and physiological responses of Pesisir cattle. Abiotic environmental measures were ambient temperature (Ta), humidity (RH) and Temperature Humidity Index (THI). Physiological variables were rectal temperature (Tr), skin temperature (Ts), respiratory rate (RR), and heart rate (HR). Tr and Ts were used to determine body temperature (Tb). Tr and RR are variables for calculating Heat Tolerance Coefficient (HTC). To determine whether there are differences in climatic conditions and physiological values in the two regions, the data were analyzed using a t-test. The results showed that climate potential in the lowlands was the average Ta 29.96° C, the average Rh 64.22% with an average THI 79.96 while the potential climate in the highlands was the average Ta 25.42°C, the average Rh 69, 48% with a mean THI of 74.3. The average HTC of cattle in the lowlands is 1.78 and the highlands is 1.82. The conclusion showed the climate potential of lowland for raising beef cattle includes heat stress zones, while the highlands there was mild stress. The physiological conditions of Pesisir cattle in the lowlands different from the highlands are Tr, Ts, Tb, and HR while RR is found the same in both plains. HTC of Pesisir cattle is good in both plains of West Sumatera.

Keywords


dataran rendah; dataran tinggi; daya tahan panas; iklim mikro; respon fisiologis; sapi Pesisir; highland; heat tolerance coefficient; lowland; microclimate; pesisir cattle; physiological responses

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.17969/agripet.v20i2.16017

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