Mobile learning application: Infusing critical thinking in the EFL classroom.

Noni Agustina, Ilza Mayuni, Ifan Iskandar, Ni Made Ratminingsih

Abstract


The emergence of mobile learning applications facilitates the pedagogical approach to developing students’ critical thinking. However, there is a scarcity of investigation on mobile learning applications’ impact on developing critical thinking as the learning outcome. Thus, this study reports the effect of a mobile learning application, ‘English with Noni’, designed to infuse critical thinking instruction in EFL classes on students’ critical thinking level by employing a sequential explanatory mixed-method approach. A quasi-experimental study was conducted to examine the critical thinking level of 65 students of a junior high school in Jakarta, Indonesia, by administering a post-test assessed using a SOLO rubric. Semi-structured interviews to explore students’ responses from using the ‘English with Noni’ application and class observation contributed to the qualitative findings. The quantitative result showed that the critical thinking level of the experimental group using this application improved significantly more than the controlled group did. The qualitative result suggested that the experimental group had positive responses to using it. They confirmed that it was interesting. They also admitted that it contributed to developing their critical thinking (i.e., predicting, providing reasons, expressing viewpoints, finding alternatives, and making conclusions), language skills (i.e., listening, reading, and writing), and sub-skill (vocabulary). The findings imply that critical thinking activities and learning affordances provided in the ‘English with Noni’ application is a potential tool to enhance students’ critical thinking infused in the EFL class, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic situation, by emphasizing self-regulated learning.

Keywords


critical thinking; infused learning; mobile learning application; SOLO taxonomy

Full Text:

PDF

References


Afshar, H. S., & Movassagh, H. (2014). On the relationship among critical thinking, language learning strategy use and university achievement of Iranian English as a foreign language majors. The Language Learning Journal, 45(3), 382-398. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2014.914238

Almulla, M. (2018). Investigating teachers’ perceptions of their own practies to improve students’ critical thinking in secondary schools in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education, 6(3), 15-27. https://doi.org/10.5937/ijcrsee1803015A

Alnofaie, H. (2013). A framework for implementing critical thinking as a language pedagogy in EFL preparatory programmes. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 10, 154-158. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2013.09.002

Aloqaili, A. S. (2012). The relationship between reading comprehension and critical thinking: A theoretical study. Journal of King Saud University - Languages and Translation, 24(1), 35-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jksult.2011.01.001

Angeli, C., Valanides, N., & Bonk, C. J. (2003). Communication in a web-based conferencing system: The quality of computer-mediated interactions. British Journal of Educational Technology, 34(1), 31-44.

Ataeifar, F., Sadighi, F., Bagheri, M. S., & Behjat, F. (2019). Iranian female students’ perceptions of the impact of mobile-assisted instruction on their English speaking skill. Cogent Education, 6(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2019.1662594

Ayçiçek, B. (2021). Integration of critical thinking into curriculum: Perspectives of prospective teachers. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 41, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2021.100895

Bai, H. (2009). Facilitating students’ critical thinking in online discussion: An instructor’s experience. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 8(2), 156-164.

Barrett, N. E., Liu, G., & Wang, H. (2021). Student perceptions of a mobile learning application for English Oral Presentations: The case of EOPA. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 1-26. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2021.1881975

Biggs, J., & Tang, C. (2011). Teaching for quality learning at university (4th ed.). Open University Press.

Booton, S. A., Hodgkiss, A., & Murphy, V. A. (2021). The impact of mobile application features on children’s language and literacy learning: a systematic review. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 1-31. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2021.1930057

Boulton-Lewis, G. M. (1995). The SOLO taxonomy as a means of shaping and assessing learning in higher education. Higher Education Research & Development, 14(2), 143-154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0729436950140201

Cáceres, M., Nussbaum, M., & Ortiz, J. (2020). Integrating critical thinking into the classroom: A teacher’s perspective. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 37, 100674. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2020.100674

Chan, C. C., Tsui, M. S., Chan, M. Y. C., & Hong, J. H. (2002). Applying the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO) taxonomy on student’s learning outcomes: An empirical study. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 27(6), 511-527. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0260293022000020282

Chang, W. L., & Yeh, Y. C.. (2021). A blended design of game-based learning for motivation, knowledge sharing and critical thinking enhancement. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 30(2), 271-286. https://doi.org/10.1080/1475939X.2021.1885482

Chen, T., Hsu, H. M., Stamm, S. W., & Yeh, R. (2019). Creating an instrument for evaluating critical thinking apps for college students. E-Learning and Digital Media, 16(6), 433-454. http://doi.org/10.1177/2042753019860615

Chou, T. L., Wu, J. J., & Tsai, C. C. (2019). Research trends and features of critical thinking studies in e-learning environments: A review. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 57(4), 1038-1077. http://doi.org/10.1177/0735633118774350

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Pearson.

Defianty, M., & Wilson, K. (2019). Fostering critical thinking through questioning in EFL: An Indonesian study. In L. Li (Ed.), Thinking skills and creativity in second language acquisition (Issue 1, Chapter 5). Routledge.

Ebadi, S., & Rahimi, M. (2018). An exploration into the impact of WebQuest-based classroom on EFL learners’ critical thinking and academic writing skills: a mixed-methods study. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 31(5-6), 617-651. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2018.1449757

Elaish, M. M., Shuib, L., Ghani, N. A., & Yadegaridehkordi, E. (2019). Mobile English Language Learning (MELL): A literature review. Educational Review, 71(2), 257-276. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131911.2017.1382445

Ennis, R. H. (2015). Critical thinking: A streamlined conception. In M. Davies & R. Barnett (Eds.), The Palgrave handbook of critical thinking in higher education (pp. 57-71). Palgrave MacMillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137378057_2

Espey, M. (2018). Enhancing critical thinking using team-based learning. Higher Education Research and Development, 37(1), 15-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2017.1344196

Facione, P. (2015). Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts. Measured Reasons LLC.

Florea, N. M., & Hurjui, E. (2015). Critical thinking in elementary school children. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 180, 565-572. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.02.161

Floyd, C. B. (2011). Critical thinking in a second language. Higher Education Research and Development, 30(3), 289-302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2010.501076

Fujimoto, C. (2012). Perceptions of mobile language learning in Australia: How ready are learners to study on the move? The JALT CALL Journal, 8(3), 165-195. https://doi.org/10.29140/jaltcall.v8n3.140

Ghorbani, N., & Ebadi, S. (2020). Exploring learners’ grammatical development in mobile assisted language learning. Cogent Education, 7(1), 1704599. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2019.1704599

Gopal, N., & Stears, M. (2007). An alternative approach to assessing science competencies. African Journal of Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 11(2), 15-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10288457.2007.10740618

Gunawardena, M., & Wilson, K. (2021). Scaffolding students’ critical thinking: A process not an end game. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 41, 100848. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2021.100848

Hammer, S., & Griffiths, P. (2015). Proposition testing: A strategy to develop critical thinking for essay writing. In M. Davies & R. Barnett (Eds.), The Palgrave handbook of critical thinking in higher education (pp. 247-263). Palgrave MacMillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137378057_16

Han, H. S., & Brown, E. T. (2013). Effects of critical thinking intervention for early childhood tacher candidates. Teacher Educator, 48(2), 110-127. http://doi.org/10.1080/08878730.2012.760699

Hwang, G., & Fu, Q. (2019). Trends in the research design and application of mobile language learning: A review of 2007-2016 publications in selected SSCI journals. Interactive Learning Environments, 27(14), 567-581. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2018.1486861

Ilyas, H. P. (2015). Critical thinking: Its representation in Indonesian ELT textbooks and education. University of York.

Jager, T. D. (2012). Can first year students’ critical thinking skills develop in a space of three months? Social and Behavioral Sciences, 47, 1374-1381. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.829

Koutromanos, G., & Avraamidou, L. (2014). The use of mobile games in formal and informal learning environments: A review of the literature. Educational Media International, 51(1), 49-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09523987.2014.889409

Ku, K. Y. L. (2009). Assessing students’ critical thinking performance: Urging for measurements using multi-response format. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 4(1), 70-76. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2009.02.001

Lee, H., Parsons, D., Kwon, G., Kim, J., Petrova, K., Jeong, E., & Ryu, H. (2016). Cooperation begins: Encouraging critical thinking skills through cooperative reciprocity using a mobile learning game. Computers & Education, 97, 97-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.03.006

Lin, C. C. (2014). Learning English reading in a mobile-assisted extensive reading program. Computers & Education, 78, 48-59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.05.004

Lueg, R., Lueg, K., & Lauridsen, O. (2016). Aligning seminars with Bologna requirements: Reciprocal peer tutoring, the solo taxonomy and deep learning. Studies in Higher Education, 41(9), 1674-1691. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2014.1002832

Ma, Q. (2017). A multi-case study of university students’ language-learning experience mediated by mobile technologies: A socio-cultural perspective. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30(3-4), 183-203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2017.1301957

Mallampalli, S. S., & Goyal, S. (2021). Mobile applications for developing second language collaborative writing. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, 15(7), 185-193. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijim.v15i07.19885

Marashi, H., & Mirghafari, S. (2019). Using content-based and task-based teaching in a critical thinking setting to improve EFL learners’ writing. Studies in English Language and Education, 6(1), 26-43. https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v6i1.11745

McCann, S. (2015, March 31-April 2). Higher order mLearning: Critical thinking in mobile learning [Paper presentation]. MODSIM World 2015, Virginia Beach Convention Center, USA.

Mehta, S. R., & Al-Mahrooqi, R. (2015). Can thinking be taught? Linking critical thinking and writing in an EFL context. RELC Journal, 46(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688214555356

Munowenyu, E. (2007). Assessing the quality of essays using the SOLO Taxonomy: Effects of field and classroom-based experiences by ‘A’ Level geography students. International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education, 16(1), 21-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.2167/irg204.0

Nanni, A. C., & Wilkinson, P. J. (2015). Assessment of ELLs’ critical thinking using the holistic critical thinking scoring rubric. Language Education in Asia, 5(2), 283-291. http://dx.doi.org/10.5746/LEiA/14/V5/I2/A09/Nanni_Wilkinson

Önal, N., Çevik, K. K., & Şenol, V. (2019). The effect of SOS table learning environment on mobile learning tools acceptance, motivation and mobile learning attitude in English language learning. Interactive Learning Environments, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2019.1690529

Patterson, B. (2021). Analyzing student understanding of cryptography using the SOLO taxonomy. Cryptologia, 45(5), 439-449. https://doi.org/10.1080/01611194.2020.1755746

Prahani, B. K., Jatmiko, B., Hariadi, B., Sunarto, D., Sagirani, T., Amelia, T., & Lemantara, J. (2020). Blended web mobile learning (BWML) model to improve students’ higher order thinking skills. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 15(11), 42-55. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v15i11.12853

Rahimi, M., & Miri, S. S. (2014). The impact of mobile dictionary use on language learning. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 1469-1474. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.567

Şad, S. N., Özer, N., Yakar, Ü., & Öztürk, F. (2020). Mobile or hostile? Using smartphones in learning English as a foreign language. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 1-27. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2020.1770292

Sandberg, J., Maris, M., & De Geus, K. (2011). Mobile English learning: An evidence-based study with fifth graders. Computers and Education, 57(1), 1334-1347. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.01.015

Saxton, E., Belanger, S., & Becker, W. (2012). The Critical Thinking Analytic Rubric (CTAR): Investigating intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of a scoring mechanism for critical thinking performance assessments. Assessing Writing, 17(4), 251-270. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2012.07.002

Sorayyaei, A., & Nasiri, H. (2014). Learners ‘ attitudes toward the effectiveness of Mobile Assisted Language Learning ( MALL ) in L2 listening comprehension. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 1836-1843. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.613

Soufi, N. E., & See, B. H. (2019). Does explicit teaching of critical thinking improve critical thinking skills of English language learners in higher education ? A critical review of causal evidence. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 60, 140-162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stueduc.2018.12.006

Stålne, K., Kjellström, S., & Utriainen, J. (2016). Assessing complexity in learning outcomes - a comparison between the SOLO taxonomy and the model of hierarchical complexity. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 41(7), 1033-1048. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2015.1047319

Stapleton, P. (2011). A survey of attitudes towards critical thinking among Hong Kong secondary school teachers: Implications for policy change. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 6(1), 14-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2010.11.002

Stockwell, G. (2007). Vocabulary on the move: Investigating an intelligent mobile phone-based vocabulary tutor. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 20(4), 365-383. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09588220701745817

Toy, B. Y., & Ok, A. (2012). Incorporating critical thinking in the pedagogical content of a teacher education programme: Does it make a difference? European Journal of Teacher Education, 35(1), 39-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2011.634902

Varenina, L., Vecherinina, E., Shchedrina, E., Valiev, I., & Islamov, A. (2021). Developing critical thinking skills in a digital educational environment. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 41, 100906. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2021.100906

Vidoni, K. L., & Maddux, C. D. (2002). WebQuests: Can they be used to improve critical thinking skills in students. Computers in the Schools, 19(1-2), 101-117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J025v19n01_09

Wang, Y. H. (2017). Integrating self-paced mobile learning into language instruction: Impact on reading comprehension and learner satisfaction. Interactive Learning Environments, 25(3), 397-411. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2015.1131170

Yang, Y. T. C., Chuang, Y. C., Li, L. Y., & Tseng, S. S. (2013). A blended learning environment for individualized English listening and speaking integrating critical thinking. Computers and Education, 63, 285-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.12.012

Yulian, R. (2021). The flipped classroom: Improving critical thinking for critical reading of EFL learners in higher education. Studies in English Language and Education, 8(2), 508-522. https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v8i2.18366

Zhang, X. (2018). Developing college EFL writers’ critical thinking skills through online resources: A case study. SAGE Open, 8(4), 1-12. http://doi.org/10.1177/2158244018820386

Zhang, D., & Pérez-Paredes, P. (2021). Chinese postgraduate EFL learners’ self-directed use of mobile English learning resources. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 34(8), 1128-1153. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2019.1662455

Zubaidah, S., Aloysius, D. C., & Mahanal, S. (2018). Revealing the relationship between reading interest and critical thinking skills through remap GI and remap jigsaw. International Journal of Instruction, 11(2), 41-56. https://doi.org/10.12973/iji.2018.1124a




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v9i2.23476

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Print ISSN: 2355-2794, Online ISSN: 2461-0275

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.