Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition Technique for Improving Content and Organization in Writing

Faisal Mustafa, Nanda Marlina Abdul Samad


This study examines the Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) technique for improving students’ English writing skills, specifically in content and organization when focused on writing recount texts. This experimental research used random sampling and random assignment to determine the control group (CG) and the experimental group (EG). Pre- tests, treatment or teaching and post-tests were done to both groups. The study was conducted with 60 second year students from a junior high school in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. Students’ mean scores for the pre-test in the CG were 40.76 and 60.76 for the post-test, meanwhile students’ mean scores for the pre-test in the EG were 40 and 72.69 for the post-test. Thus, the t-test between both groups was 9.39 and the t-table was 2.056 which used 0.05 as the level of significance for this research. Because the t-test value was higher than the t-table (9.39 > 2.056), Ha was accepted and Ho was rejected. Therefore, the CIRC technique can improve the content and organization of students’ writing in doing recount texts. In addition, because students work in groups, they have more opportunity to learn and share their ideas with other students to produce better writing.


Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) technique; writing; content; organization; recount text

Full Text:



Ahuja, A. (1994). The effect of cooperative learning instructional strategy on the academic achievement, attitudes toward science class and process skills of middle school science students. (Unpublished PhD dissertation). The Ohio State University, Ohio.

Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., Razavieh, A., & Sorensen, C. (2006). Introduction to research in education, (7th ed.). Belmont, C.A.: Thomson Wadsworth.

Arends, R. I. (2004). Learning to teach, (6th ed). New York: McGraw Hill.

Ahmed, A. H. (2010). Students’ problems with cohesion and coherence in EFL essay writing in Egypt: Different perspective. Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal (LICEJ), 1(4): 211-221.

Bridge, C., & Hiebert, E. (1985). A comparison of classroom writing practices, teachers’ perceptions of their instruction, and textbook recommendations on writing practices. Elementary School Journal, 86: 155-172.

Brown, H. D. (2004). Language assessment: Principle and classroom practice. New York: Longman.

Brown, J. D. (1999). Understanding research in second language learning: A teacher’s guide to statistics and research design. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bungin. (2005). Metodologi penelitian kuantitatif (komunikasi, ekonomi, dan kebijakan publik serta ilmu-ilmu sosial lainnya). Jakarta: Prenada Media Group.

Byrne, D. (1985). English teaching perspectives. Singapore: Longman Singapore Publishers Pte Ltd.

Calderón, M. E., Tinajero, J. V., & Hertz-Lazarowitz, R. (1992). Adapting cooperative integrated reading and composition to meet the needs of bilingual students. The Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students, 10 (Special Issue): 79-106.

Cruickshank, R. D., Jenkins, B. D., Metcalf, K. K. (2006). The act of teaching, (4th ed). New York: McGraw Hill.

Departemen Pendidikan Nasional (Depdiknas). (2006). Standar kompetensi dan kompetensi dasar: Panduan pengembangan silabus per mata pelajaran, rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran (RPP), dan model kurikulum tingkat satuan pendidikan (KTSP). Jakarta: PT. Binatama Raya.

Dewi, A. P. (2013). Using the Four-Square Writing Method to improve eleventh graders’ ability of writing hortatory exposition texts at MAN Keboan Jombang. English Language Education, 3(1): 1-10

Durukan, E. (2011). Effect of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) technique on reading – writing skills. Educational Research and Reviews, 6(1): 102-109.

Farnan, N., Flood, J., & Lapp, D. (1994). Comprehending through reading and writing: Six research-based instructional strategies. In K. Spangenberg-Urbschat & R. Pritchard (Eds.). Kids come in all languages: Reading instructions for ESL students (pp. 135-157). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Glass, K. T. (2005).Curriculum design for writing instruction. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press, Inc.

Himawati, U. 2011. The use of cooperative integrated reading and composition (CIRC) method to improve students’ ability in composing narrative writing (A classroom action research at the eighth grade students of MTs Negeri Kudus in the academic year of 2010/2011. Semarang: Education Faculty, State institute for Islamic Studies, Walisongo.

Kasim, U. (2010). Research on English language teaching. Banda Aceh: Syiah Kuala University Press.

Mason, J. M. 1989. Reading and writing connections. Boston. MA: Allyn and Bacon. Nunan, D. (1992). Research methods in language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Peregoy, S., & Boyle, O. (1993). Reading, writing and learning in ESL: A resource book for teachers. White Plains, NY: Longman.

Richardson, J.S., & Morgan, R.F. (2003). Reading to learn in the content areas. Belmont, CA: Thomson.

Rosenblatt, L.M. (1989). Reading and writing: The transactional theory. In J.M. Mason (Ed.), Reading and writing connections (pp. 153-176). Boston. MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Setiyadi, B. 2006. Metode penelitian untuk pengajaran bahasa asing. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.

Slavin, R.E. (1996). Education for all. Denhaag: Swets and Zeitlinger BV.

Stevens, R. J., Madden, N. A., Slavin, R. E., & Farnish, A. M. (1987). Cooperative integrated reading and composition: Two field experiments. Reading Research Quarterly, 22(4): 433–454.

Stevens, R. J., & Slavin, R. (1995). Effects of a cooperative learning approach in reading and writing on academically handicapped and non-handicapped students. Elementary School Journal, 95: 241-262.

Tangpermpoon, T. (2008). Integrated approaches to improve students writing skills for English major students. ABAC Journal, 28(2): 1-9

Wrick, J. (2011). Steps to writing (7th Ed). Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Print ISSN: 2355-2794, Online ISSN: 2461-0275

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.