Promoting EFL students’ critical thinking and self-voicing through CIRC technique in Academic Writing courses

Andi Susilo, Restu Mufanti, Aris Fitriani

Abstract


Critical thinking and self-voicing are two demanding skills that facilitate students to produce concise, authorial academic texts. While most writing programs and research have paid much attention to improving students’ writing achievement, less attention is given to promote these two skills in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) writing classrooms. This article reports a classroom-based study investigating the use of the Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) technique to promote EFL students’ academic writing skills. It particularly examines how the CIRC technique helps to foster students’ critical and self-voicing stance in developing argumentative texts. A participatory qualitative study was employed, involving 64 undergraduate students majoring in English Education. Data were generated from the participants’ writing portfolios, observations, and the teacher’s reflections. The collected data were managed, classified, and analyzed using NVivo 12 to elicit the emerging themes. Drawing on the qualitative content analysis, the results showed that the CIRC technique helped to shape the participants’ critical thinking and self-voicing skills which were consistently demonstrated during the student-centered activities and their writing results. The participants could engage in productive writing processes, such as critical reading, note-taking, summarizing, drafting and revising composition, peer-reviewing, and other related collaborative skills. The findings indicated that the development of students’ critical thinking and self-voicing skills simultaneously affected the quality of their academic writing texts.


Keywords


academic writing; CIRC technique; critical thinking; self-voicing

Full Text:

PDF

References


Acikgoz, K. U. (1992). Cooperative learning, theory, research, practice. Ugurel Publications.

Alagozlu, N. (2007). Critical thinking and voice in EFL writing. Asian EFL Journal, 9(3), 118-136.

Ataç, B. A. (2015). From descriptive to critical writing: A study on the effectiveness of advanced reading and writing instruction. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 199, 620-626. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.07.588

Bailin, S., Case, R., Coombs, J. R., & Daniels, L. B. (1999). Conceptualizing critical thinking. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 31(3), 285-302. https://doi.org/10.1080/002202799183133

Barnawi, O. Z. (2011). Finding a place for critical thinking and self-voice in college English as a foreign language writing classroom. English Language Teaching, 4(2), 190-197. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v4n2p190

Benesch, S. (1999). Thinking critically, thinking dialogically. TESOL Quarterly, 33(3), 573-580. https://doi.org/10.2307/3587682

Bullen, M. (1998). Participation and critical thinking in online university distance education. Journal of Distance Education, 13(2), 1-32.

Canagarajah, A. S. (2002). Critical academic writing and multilingual students. The University of Michigan Press.

Cappello, M. (2006). Under construction: Voice and identity development in writing workshop. Language Arts, 83(6), 482-491.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2017). Research methods in education. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315456539

Danbin, W. (2015). The relationship between voice development and the quality of EFL writing: A study on first-person pronouns in the revision process. Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics (Quarterly), 38(1), 110-127. https://doi.org/10.1515/cjal-2015-0006

Durukan, E. (2011). Effects of cooperative integrated reading and composition (CIRC) technique on reading-writing skills. Educational Research and Reviews, 6(1), 102-109.

Facione, P. A. (2000). The disposition toward critical thinking: Its character, measurement, and relation to critical thinking skill. Informal Logic, 20(1), 61-84.

Fahim, M. & Eslamdoost, S. (2014). Critical thinking: Frameworks and models for teaching. English Language Teaching, 7(7), 141-151. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/elt.v7n7p141

Fell, E. F. & Lukianova, N. A. (2015). British universities: International students’ alleged lack of critical thinking. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 215, 2-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.11.565

Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2001). Critical thinking, cognitive presence, and computer conferencing in distance education. Internet and Higher Education, 11(2), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1080/08923640109527071

Ghufron, M., & Ermawati, S. (2018). The strengths and weaknesses of cooperative learning and problem-based learning in EFL writing class: Teachers’ and students’ perspectives. International Journal of Instruction, 11(4), 657-672. https://doi.org/10.12973/iji.2018.11441a

Hayes, K. D., & Devitt, A. A. (2008). Classroom discussions with student‐led feedback: A useful activity to enhance the development of critical thinking skills. Journal of Food Science Education, 7(4), 65-68. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4329.2008.00054.x

Hirvela, A., & Belcher, D. (2011). Coming back to voice: The multiple voices and identities of mature multilingual writers. Journal of Second Language Writing, 10, 83-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1060-3743(00)00038-2

Hyland, F., & Hyland, K. (2006). Feedback on second language students’ writing. Language Teaching, 39(2), 83-101. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444806003399

Ivanic, R., & Camps, D. (2001). I am how I sound: Voice as self-representation in L2 writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 10(1.2), 3-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1060-3743(01)00034-0

Kral, M. J. (2014). The relational motif in participatory qualitative research. Qualitative Inquiry, 20, 144-150. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800413510871

Liaw, M. L. (2007). Content-based reading and writing for critical thinking skills in an EFL context. English Teaching and Learning, 31(2), 45-87.

Liu, J. (2018). Cultivation of critical thinking abilities in English writing teaching. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 8(8), 982-987. http://dx.doi.org/10.17507/tpls.0808.09

Liu, X., & Yao, T. (2019). The cultivation of college students’ critical thinking ability based on task-based cooperative writing. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 10(3), 557-568.

Mufanti, R., & Susilo, A. (2017). Bridging the gaps between students’ prior knowledge and skill in writing and the expected thesis outcome. JEES (Journal of English Educators Society), 2(2), 101-118. https://doi.org/10.21070/jees.v2i2.982

Mustafa, F. & Samad, N. M. A (2015). Cooperative integrated reading and composition technique or improving content and organization in writing. Studies in English Language and Education, 2(1), 29-44. https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v2i1.2236

Newman, D. R., Webb, B., & Cochrane, C. (1995). A content analysis method to measure critical thinking in face-to-face and computer supported group learning. Interpersonal Computing and Technology, 3(2), 56-77.

Olsen, R. E. W. B., & Kagan, S. (1992). About cooperative learning. In C. Kessler (Ed.), Cooperative language learning: A teacher’s resource book (pp. 1-30). Prentice-Hall.

Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2002). Critical thinking: Tools for taking charge of your learning and your life. Prentice-Hall.

Pithers, R. T., & Soden, R. (2000). Critical thinking in education: A review. Educational Research, 42(3), 237-249. https://doi.org/10.1080/001318800440579

Sahardin, R., Hanum, C. S., & Gani, S. A. (2017). Using Think-Pair-Share for writing descriptive texts. Studies in English Language and Education, 4(1), 54-65. https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v4i1.7004

Schreier, M. (2012). Qualitative content analysis in practice. SAGE.

Slavin, R. E. (1995). Cooperative Learning: Theory, research, and practice. Prentice-Hall.

Soozandehfar, S.M.A. (2020). Accounting for change in critical thinking components mediated by differential effects of paper-based vs. web-assisted feedback in writing. Applied Research on English Language, 9(3), 365-381. https://dx.doi.org/10.22108/are.2019.117949.1472

Sutrisno, B., Rasyid, Y., & Rahmat, A. (2018). The effect of cooperative language learning and personality types towards essay writing. English Review: Journal of English Education, 6(2), 95-104. https://doi.org/10.25134/erjee.v6i2.1259

Swatridge, C. (2014). The Oxford guide to effective argument and critical thinking. Oxford University Press.

Widodo, H.P. (2012). Pedagogical tasks for shaping EFL college student writers’ critical thinking and self-voicing. International Journal of Innovation in English Language Teaching, 1(1), 87-99.

Willingham, D. T. (2007). Critical thinking: Why is it so hard to teach? American Educator, 31, 8-19. https://doi.org/10.3200/AEPR.109.4.21-32

Yusuf, Q., Jusoh, Z., & Yusuf, Y. Q. (2019). Cooperative learning strategies to enhance writing skills among second language learners. International Journal of Instruction, 12(1), 1399-1412. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2019.12189a

Zare-ee, A., Hematiyan, N., & Matin, S. A. (2012). Individualized voice in undergraduate writing in English as a foreign language. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 5782-5786. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.514




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v8i3.21149

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Print ISSN: 2355-2794, Online ISSN: 2461-0275

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.