Students’ perceptions with different CEFR levels on foreign teachers using L1 in EFL instruction

Kiki Juli Anggoro, Ahn Nguyet Nguyen

Abstract


The demand for foreign teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) has been high in non-English speaking countries, including Thailand. As foreigners have resided in the country for several years, they picked up students’ first language (L1) competence. Several foreign teachers, to some extent, utilized this mastery of L1 to assist the English instruction. This research aimed to explore how students with different Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) levels perceive foreign English teachers’ use of L1. Three hundred twenty students from Walailak University participated in the survey. A quantitative survey and qualitative interview were used to collect data. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed to analyze quantitative data, while content analysis was administered to investigate the qualitative data. The quantitative findings revealed a significant difference in students’ perceptions, Welch’s F(2,68.42)=11.304, p < .05. The qualitative findings exposed that students in level A1 had significantly different perceptions compared to those in levels A2 and B1. Students who supported L1 integration disclosed that it ameliorated communication, enhanced learning motivation, and improved academic achievement. Additionally, students who opposed L1 expressed that English’s full usage developed their learning motivation and academic accomplishment. 


Keywords


Common European Framework Reference (CEFR); EFL Thai students; English proficiency; first language

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alseweed, M. A. (2012). University students’ perceptions of the influence of native and non-native teachers. English Language Teaching, 5(12), 42-53. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v5n12p42

Byram, M., & Parmenter, L. (Eds.). (2012). The common European framework of reference: The globalisation of language education policy (Vol. 23). Multilingual Matters.

Carson, E., & Kashihara, H. (2012). Using the L1 in the L2 classroom: The students speak. The Language Teacher, 36(4), 41-48. https://doi.org/10.37546/JALTTLT36.4-5

Chabert, A., & Agost, R. (2020). Communicative language teaching: Is there a place for L1 in L2 learning? A case study in Spain and Norway. European Journal of Language Policy, 12(1), 55-83. https://doi.org/10.3828/ejlp.2020.4

Cook, V. (2001). Using the first language in the classroom. The Canadian Modern Language Review/ La Revue Canadienne des Language Vivantes, 57(3), 402-423. https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.57.3.402

Council of Europe. (2001). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, and assessment. Cambridge University Press.

Creamer, E. G. (2018). An introduction to fully integrated mixed methods research. SAGE.

Creswell, J., & Clark, V. L. P. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. SAGE.

Embassies urged to find English teachers (2020, February 15). Bangkok Post. https://www.bangkokpost.com/thailand/general/1857754/embassies-urged-to-find-english-teachers

Flammer, A. F. (2013). Addressing the challenges of English instruction in Thailand through a positive deviance framework (Publication No. 3598202). [Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California]. ProQuest. https://search.proquest.com/docview/1458632482?pq-origsite=gscholar

Gay, L. R., Mills, G. E., & Airasian, P. W. (2011). Educational research. Pearson.

George, D., & Mallery, P. (2006). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference, 14.0 update (7th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.

Hawks, P. (2001). Making distinctions: A discussion of the mother tongue in the foreign language classroom. Hwa Kang Journal of TEFL, 7, 47-55.

Hickey, M. (2014, January 15). English for ASEAN! African and Asian teacher migration in response to Thailand’s English-language education boom. Asian Languages and Literature. https://asian.washington.edu/events/2014-01-15/english-asean-african-and-asian-teacher-migration-response-thailands-english

Hitotuzi, N. (2006). The learner’s mother tongue in the L2 learning-teaching symbiosis. Profile: Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 7, 161-171.

Holthouse, J. (2006). The role of the mother tongue in EFL classrooms. Forum for Foreign Language Education, 3(5), 27-37.

Huhta, A. (2012). Common European Framework of Reference. In C. A. Chapelle (Ed.), Encyclopedia of applied linguistics (pp. 1-7). Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0157

Ibrahim, A. (2019). Investigating the needs and drawbacks of L1 in L2 education: Students’ perception. Journal of Studies in Education, 9(1), 17-31. https://doi.org/10.5296/jse.v9i1.14088

İpek, H. (2009). Comparing and contrasting first and second language acquisition: Implications for language teachers. CCSE English Language Teaching Journal, 2(2), 155-163. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v2n2p155

Kalanzadeh, G., Hemati, F., Shahivand, Z., & Bakhtiarvand, M. (2013). The use of EFL students’ L1 in English classes. The International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World (IJLLALW), 2(2), 30-39.

Kieu, H. K. A. (2010). Use of Vietnamese in English language teaching in Vietnam: Attitudes of Vietnamese university teachers. EFL Journal, 3(2), 119-128. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v3n2p119

Korstjens, I., & Moser, A. (2018). Series: Practical guidance to qualitative research. Part 4: Trustworthiness and publishing. European Journal of General Practice, 24(1), 120-124. https://doi.org/10.1080/13814788.2017.1375092

Krashen, S. D. (2003). Explorations in language acquisition and use: The Taipei lectures. Pearson.

Kwangsawad, T. (2017). In-service EFL teacher development for technology integration in communicative language teaching. Asian Journal of Education and e-Learning, 5(2), 44-52. https://doi.org/10.24203/ajeel.v5i2.4465

Lamb, M. (2017). The motivational dimension of language teaching. Language Teaching, 50(3), 301-346. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444817000088

Larsen-Freeman D. (2001). Teaching grammar. In M. Celce Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (pp. 251-266). Heinle & Heinle.

Littlewood, W. (2013). Developing a context-sensitive pedagogy for communication-oriented language teaching. English Teaching, 68(3), 3-25. https://doi.org/10.15858/engtea.68.3.201309.3

Mart, C. T. (2013). The facilitating role of L1 in ESL classes. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 3(1), 9-14.

McLeod, S. A. (2019, August 03). Likert scale definition, examples and analysis. Simply Psychology. https://www.simplypsychology.org/likert-scale.html

Medgyes, P. (2001). When the teacher is a non-native speaker. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (pp. 429-442). Heinle & Heinle.

Miles, R. (2004). Evaluating the use of l1 in the English language classroom [Unpublished master’s thesis]. University of Birmingham.

Nation, P. (2003). The role of the first language in foreign language learning. The Asian EFL Journal, 5(2), 1-8.

Nazary, M. (2008). The role of L1 in L2 acquisition: Attitudes of Iranian university students. Novitas -Royal, 2(2), 138-153.

Norman, J. (2008). Benefits and drawbacks to L1 use in the L2 classroom. In K. B. Watts, T. Muller & M. Swanson (Eds.), JALT2007 Conference Proceedings. Challenging Assumptions: Looking In, Looking Out (pp. 691-701). JALT.

North, B. (2014). The CEFR in practice. Cambridge University Press.

Pachler, N., & Field, K. (2001). From mentor to co-tutor: Reconceptualising secondary modern foreign languages initial teacher education. Language Learning Journal, 23(1), 15-25. https://doi.org/10.1080/09571730185200051

Park, E. S. (2009). The Korean university students’ preferences toward native English speaking teachers. Modern English Education, 10(3), 114-130.

Phillipson, R. (2001). English for globalisation or for the world’s people? International Review of Education, 47(3), 185-200. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1017937322957

Polio, C., & Lee, J. (2019). Experimental studies in L2 classrooms. In J. W. Schwieter & A. G. Benati (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of language learning: Cambridge handbooks in language and linguistics (pp. 137-165). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108333603.007

Prapphal, K. (2003). English proficiency of Thai learners and directions of English teaching and learning in Thailand. Thai Journals Online, 1, 1-6.

Puengpipattrakul, W., Chiramanee, N., & Sripetpun, W. (2007). The challenge facing Thai graduates and their potential for English-required workforce. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 28(2), 288-297.

Rose, S., Spinks, N., & Canhoto, A. I. (2014). Management research: Applying the principles. Routledge.

Saruwatashi, S. L. (2020). Principal reasons for using L1 in the L2 classroom. 純心人文研究 Junshin Journal of Studies in Humanities, 26, 77-87.

Schreier, M. (2012). Qualitative content analysis in practice. Sage.

Schweers, W. Jr. (1999). Using L1 in the L2 classroom. English Teaching Forum, 37(2), 6-13.

Šikloši, B. (2015). The role of the mother tongue in learning English [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Strossmayer University of Osijek.

Sinha, A., Banerjee, N., Sinha, A., & Shastri, R. K. (2009). Interference of first language in the acquisition of second language. Journal of Psychology and Counseling, 1(7), 117-122.

Songsirisak, P. (2017). Non-native English speaking teachers: Uncovering Thai EFL teachers’ instructional practices in an international program of Thai university. Journal of Education: Mahasarakham University, 11(4), 125-138.

Sung, C. C. M. (2010). Native or non-native? Exploring Hong Kong students’ perspectives. In G. Bota, H. Hargreaves, C. C. Lai & R. Rong (Eds.), Lancaster University Postgraduate Conference in Linguistics & Language Teaching (Vol. 4, pp. 1-18). Lancaster University.

Tang, J. (2002). Using L1 in the English classroom. English Teaching Forum, 40(1), 36-43.

Taylor, M. (2019, December 4). More foreign English teachers needed to improve Thais’ English skills. The Tiger. https://thethaiger.com/news/national/more-foreign-english-teachers-needed-to-improve-thais-english-skills

Wigford, A. (2014, November 17). 10 things international schools look for when hiring new teachers. TIC News. https://www.ticrecruitment.com/blog/10-things-international-schools-look-for-when-hiring-new-teachers

Wu, K., & Ke, C. (2009). Haunting native speakerism? Students’ perceptions toward native speaking English teachers in Taiwan. English Language Teaching, 2(3), 44-52. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v2n3p44




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v8i3.19629

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Print ISSN: 2355-2794, Online ISSN: 2461-0275

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.