The flipped classroom: Improving critical thinking for critical reading of EFL learners in higher education

Ryani Yulian

Abstract


The immersion of the flipped classroom teaching model in blended and online language learning is indispensable. The purpose of this study was to propose improvement in critical thinking in reading through the flipped classroom teaching model of EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners in higher education. A quasi-experimental design was used to improve reading skills based on the framework of critical thinking for critical reading with a paired t-test of pre-test and post-test. The participants were 37 second-semester students in the English for Academic Purposes class. The results show that the flipped classroom teaching model enhanced students’ critical thinking for critical reading in the aspects of accuracy, clarity, precision, depth, relevance, and logic from the mean score of the pre-tests (12.4865) to the post-tests (18.3243). Students had a positive perception of the implementation of this model in terms of self-directed learning. This study implies that critical thinking for critical reading skills needs supportive teaching and learning environment that can allow students to have self-study prior to the class so that online learning can be effective to synergize the application of flipped classrooms with critical thinking skills in reading. 


Keywords


flipped classroom; critical thinking; critical reading; EFL learners; higher education

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abaeian, H., & Samadi, L. (2016). The effect of flipped classroom on Iranian EFL learners’ L2 reading comprehension: Focusing on different proficiency levels. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 3(6), 295-304.

Alsowat, H. (2016). An EFL flipped classroom teaching model: Effects on English language higher-order thinking skills, student engagement and satisfaction. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(9), 108-121.

Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. Longman.

Basal, A. (2015). The implementation of a flipped classroom in foreign language teaching. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 16(4), 28-37. https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.72185

Dong, X. (2016). Application of flipped classroom in college English teaching. Creative Education, 7(9), 1335-1339. https://doi.org/10.4236/ce.2016.79138

Ebadi, S., & Rahimi, M. (2018). An exploration into the impact of WebQuest-based classroom on EFL learners’ critical thinking and academic writing skills: A mixed-methods study. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 31(5-6), 617-651. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2018.1449757

Evseeva, A., & Solozhenko, A. (2015). Use of flipped classroom technology in language learning. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 206, 205-209. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.10.006

Halpern, D. F. (2001). Cognitive psychology of critical thinking. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (pp. 2990-2994). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/b0-08-043076-7/01586-2

Hashemifardnia, A., Namaziandost, E., & Shafiee, S. (2018). The effect of implementing flipped classrooms on Iranian junior high school students’ reading comprehension. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 8(6), 665-673. http://dx.doi.org/10.17507/tpls.0806.17

Hosseini, E., Khodaei, F. B., Sarfallah, S., & Dolatabadi, H. R. (2012). Exploring the relationship between critical thinking, reading comprehension and reading strategies of English university students. World Applied Sciences Journal, 17(10), 1356-1364.

Hsieh, J. S. C., Wu, W.-C. V., & Marek, M. W. (2017). Using the flipped classroom to enhance EFL learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30(1-2), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2015.1111910

Hung, H. T. (2015). Flipping the classroom for English language learners to foster active learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 28(1), 81-96. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2014.967701

Karimi, M., & Hamzavi, R. (2017). The effect of flipped model of instruction on EFL Learners’ reading comprehension: Learners’ attitudes in focus. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 8(1), 95-103. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.alls.v.8n.1p.95

Karimi, P., & Sanavi, R. V. (2014). Analyzing English Language learning needs among students in aviation training program. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 852-858. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.491

Lee, G., & Wallace, A. (2018). Flipped learning in the English as a foreign language classroom: outcomes and perceptions. TESOL Quarterly, 52(1), 62-84. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.372

Lestari, I. W. (2021). Flipped classroom in Indonesian higher education: A mixed-method study on students’ attitudes and experiences. Studies in English Language and Education, 8(1), 243–257. https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v8i1.17636

Mehring, J. (2017). The flipped classroom. In J. Mehring & A. Leis (Eds.), Innovations in flipping the language classroom: Theories and practices (pp. 1-9). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-6968-0_1

Minakova, L. Y. (2014). Critical thinking development in foreign language teaching for non-language-majoring students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 154, 324-328. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.10.157

Nouri, J. (2016). The flipped classroom: For active, effective and increased learning - especially for low achievers. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 13, 33. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-016-0032-z

Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2009). The miniature guide to critical thinking: Concepts and tools (6th ed.). Foundation for Critical Thinking.

Rakesh Babu, M., & Vivekha, S. (2019). Flipped classroom: A paradigm shift in English language teaching. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering, 8(2S3), 136-137. https://doi.org/10.35940/ijrte.B1024.0782S319

Schmidt, S. M. P., & Ralph, D. L. (2016). The flipped classroom: A twist on teaching. Contemporary Issues in Education Research, 9(1), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.19030/cier.v9i1.9544

Smit, N., van de Grift, W., de Bot, K., & Jansen, E. (2017). A classroom observation tool for scaffolding reading comprehension. System, 65, 117-129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2016.12.014

Smith, T. E., Rama, P. S., & Helms, J. R. (2018). Teaching critical thinking in a GE class: A flipped model. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 28, 73-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2018.02.010

Soliman, N. A. (2016). Teaching English for academic purposes via the flipped learning approach. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 232, 122-129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.10.036

Van Alten, D. C. D., Phielix, C., Janssen, J., & Kester, L. (2020). Self-regulated learning support in flipped learning videos enhances learning outcomes. Computers and Education, 158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2020.104000

Wilson, K. (2016). Critical reading, critical thinking: Delicate scaffolding in English for Academic Purposes (EAP). Thinking Skills and Creativity, 22, 256-265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2016.10.002

Yousefi, S., & Mohammadi, M. (2016). Critical thinking and reading comprehension among postgraduate students: The case of gender and language proficiency level. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 7(4), 802. https://doi.org/10.17507/jltr.0704.23

Yulian, R. (2020). English for economics and business: Practical with authentic and multimodal texts. LPPI Universitas Muhammadiyah Pontianak.

Yusuf, Q., Yusuf, Y. Q., Yusuf, B., & Nadya, A. (2017). Skimming and scanning techniques to assist EFL students in understanding English reading texts. Indonesian Research Journal in Education (IRJE), 1(1), 43-57.

ŽivkoviĿ, S. (2016). A Model of critical thinking as an important attribute for success in the 21st century. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 232, 102-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.10.034




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v8i2.18366

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Print ISSN: 2355-2794, Online ISSN: 2461-0275

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.