Representation of 212 rallies in the Jakarta Post articles: A hybridity of CDA and SFL analysis

Siti Sarah Fitriani, Rizki Ananda, Andi Muhammad Irawan, Iskandar Abdul Samad, Sukardi Weda


For decades, newspapers have become a daily need for people across the globe to update information. There is a tendency of the people to believe in the news published in newspapers, for media is considered neutral. In Indonesia, 212 rallies are the events that were widely reported as headlines for weeks by national and international newspapers. This study showcases the brief portrait of The Jakarta Post representations on the 212 rallies by its use of linguistic properties, to see whether The Jakarta Post is impartial in delivering the news. This study employs Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) strategies and applies the analytical tools drawn from Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG). The data were taken from sixteen 212 rallies related news, including seven headlines, collected from The Jakarta Post archives. The result of this study reveals that by using transitivity and conceptual metaphor, The Jakarta Post tends to stand on the side of the one being protested, and oppose the rallies. This finding suggests newspaper readers to read the information in newspapers more critically, to understand the use of lexicon as well as the structure of sentences to conclude the right interpretation of the news and to realize the representation. By doing so, newspaper readers will not simply accept the news they read.


critical discourse analysis; 212 rallies; the Jakarta Post; systemic functional linguistics; transitivity; metaphor

Full Text:



Al-Ali, A., El-Sharif, A., & Alzyoud, M. S. (2016). The functions and linguistic analysis of metaphor in the Holy Qur’an. European Scientific Journal, 12(14), 164-174.

Ananda, R., Fitriani, S. S., Samad, I. A., & Patak, A. A. (2019). Cigarette advertisements: A systemic functional grammar and multimodal analysis. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 8(3), 616-626.

Bartley, L., & Hidalgo-Tenorio, E. (2015). Constructing perceptions of sexual orientation: A corpus-based critical discourse analysis of transitivity in the Irish Press. Estudios Irlandeses, 10, 14-34.

Bhatia, V. K., Flowerdew, J., & Jones, R. (2008). Approaches to discourse analysis. In K. Bhatia, J. Flowerdew & R. Jones (Eds.), Advances in discourse studies (pp. 1-17). Routledge.

Boulahnane, S. (2018). Ground zero mosque in the context of America’s post-9/11 religious pluralism: CDA of mainstream news media’s coverage of the discursive event. Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies, 8(2), 253-279.

Butt, D., Fahey, R., Feez, S., Spinks, S., & Yallop, C. (2003). Using functional grammar: An explorer’s guide. National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research.

Chouliaraki, L. (2008). The media as moral education: Mediation and action. Media, Culture, and Society, 30(6), 831-852.

Crisp, P. (2008). Between extended metaphor and allegory: Is blending enough? Language and Literature, 17(4), 291-308.

Dastgeer, S., & Gade, P. J. (2016). Visual framing of Muslim women in the Arab spring: Prominent, active, and visible. The International Communication Gazette, 78(5), 432-450.

Ezeifeka, C. R. (2013). Strategic use of metaphor in Nigerian newspaper reports: A critical perspective. Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis across Disciplines, 6(2) 174–192.

Fairclough, N. (2003). Analyzing discourse: Textual analysis for social research. Routledge.

Flowerdew, J. (2004). The discursive construction of a world class city. Discourse and Society, 15(5), 579-605.

Flowerdew, J. (2008). Critical discourse analysis and strategies of resistance. In V. K. Bhatia, J. Flowerdew & R. H. Jones (Eds.), Advances in discourse studies (pp. 195-210). Routledge.

Guo, S. (2013). Metaphor studies from the perspective of critical discourse analysis: A case study of business acquisition. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3(3), 475-481.

Halliday, M. A. K., & Matthiessen, C. M. I. M. (2004). An introduction to functional grammar (3rd ed.). Hodder Arnold.

He, X., & Zhou, X. (2015). Contrastive analysis of lexical choice and ideologies in news reporting the same accidents between Chinese and American newspapers. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5(11), 2356-2365.

Hodge, R., & Kress, G. (1993). Language as ideology. Routledge.

Khan, M. H., & Govindasamy, S. (2011). Islamic militancy in Bangladeshi newspaper editorials: A discourse analysis. Multilingua: Journal of Cross-Cultural and Interlanguage Communication, 30(3-4), 357-376.

Lakoff, G. (1993). The contemporary theory of metaphor. In A. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and thought (pp. 202-251). Cambridge University Press.

Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (2008). Metaphors we live by. University of Chicago Press.

Li, J. (2010). Transitivity of lexical cohesion: Press representation of a political disaster and its actors. Journal of Pragmatics, 42(12), 3444-3458.

Martin, J. R., & Wodak, R. (2003). Introduction. In J. R. Martin & R. Wodak, (Eds), Re/reading the past: Critical and functional perspectives on time and value (pp. 1-16). John Benjamins.

Meyer, M. (2001). Between theory, method, and politics: Positioning of the approaches to CDA. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods of critical discourse analysis (pp. 14-31). Sage.

Montes, P. G., Barboza, A., Maria, S., & Olascoaga, A. I. L. (2014). Systemic functional linguistics and discourse analysis as alternatives when dealing with texts: La lingüística sistémica funcional y el análisis del discur socomo alternative spara trabajar con textos. PROFILE: Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 16(2), 101-116.

Pan, Z., & Kosicki, G. M. (1993). Framing analysis: An approach to news discourse. Political Communication, 10, 55-75.

Poorebrahim, F., & Zarei, G. R. (2013). How is Islam portrayed in western media? A critical discourse analysis perspective. International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching and Research, 1, 45-62.

Pragglejaz Group. (2007). MIP: A method for identifying metaphorically used words in discourse. Metaphor and Symbol, 22(1), 1-39.

Pratiwi, F., & Purwadi, D. (2016, December 4). Jumlah peserta aksi 212 mencapai 7,5 juta orang [The number of participants in the 212 rally reached 7,5 million people]. Republika.

Steen, G. (2007). Finding metaphor in discourse: Pragglejaz and beyond. Culture, Language and Representation, 5, 9-25.

Teo, P. (2000). Racism in the news: A critical discourse analysis of news reporting in two Australian newspapers. Discourse and Society, 11(1), 7-49.

Van Dijk, T. A. (1988). News as discourse. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Van Dijk, T. A. (1989). Critical news analysis. Critical Studies, 1, 103–126.

Van Dijk, T. A. (2000). On the analysis of parliamentary debates on immigration. In M. Reisigl & R. Wodak (Eds.), The semiotics of racism: Approaches to critical discourse analysis (pp. 85-103). Passagen Verlag.

Van Dijk, T. A. (2001). Multidisciplinary CDA: A plea for diversity. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods of critical discourse analysis (pp. 95-120). Sage.

Van Dijk, T. A. (2006). Discourse and manipulation. Discourse & Society, 17(2), 359-383.

Van Dijk, T. A. (2015). Critical discourse analysis. In D. Tannen, H. E. Hamilton & D. Schiffrin (Eds.), The handbook of discourse analysis (2nd ed.) (pp. 466-485). Wiley and Blackwell.

Weiss, G., & Wodak, R. (2003). Introduction: Theory, interdisciplinarity and critical discourse analysis. In G. Weiss & R. Wodak (Eds.), Critical discourse analysis: Theory and interdisciplinarity (pp. 1-32). Palgrave MacMillan.

Weiwei, W., & Liu, W. (2015). Critical discourse analysis of news reports on China’s Bullet-Train. Studies in Literature and Language, 10(2), 1-8.

Wodak, R. (2009). What CDA is about – a summary of its history, important concepts and its development. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods of critical discourse analysis (pp. 1-13). Sage.

Wodak, R., & Meyer, M. (2009). Critical discourse analysis: Agenda, theory, and methodology. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods of critical discourse analysis (pp. 1-33). Sage Publication.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Print ISSN: 2355-2794, Online ISSN: 2461-0275

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.