Using critical discourse analysis to explore an authentic teaching material: A focus on language and power

Sukma Septian Nasution, Nur Najibah Sukmawati, Azhar Aziz Lubis, Tommy Hastomo, Lodya Sesriyani

Abstract


Many EFL students show anxiety when speaking English in Indonesia. Therefore, when it comes to pedagogical context, critical discourse analysis (CDA) has a significant role to explore linguistics unit, socio-cultural context, and ideology of the text learners need to understand. This study aims at analysing the relation of language and power behind a text entitled ‘Driving Age, Increasing’ and making use of it to pedagogical context. The chosen text is an authentic material adopted from ‘Debatabase’, a book on building argumentative skills. By using Fairclough’s model (1989), the text was examined through three steps of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), namely description, interpretation, and explanation. Then, the analysis is interrelated with the nature of discussion text taught to the learners. The result of the analysis shows that the text is dominated by material, verbal, and relational processes, formal, complex, repetitive, evidence-based, multi-perspective, and over-wording dictions underpinned in an institutionalized social activity and unspecialized semantic domain. Further, the relationship between the author and the readers indicates there is equality in power shown by the provided equal analytical perspectives and evidence-based arguments to both conflicting parties toward the issue. As it fits the nature of discussion text, the paper ends with recommendations for EFL teachers to make use of CDA in raising learners’ language awareness.


Keywords


authentic teaching material; critical discourse analysis; language; power

Full Text:

PDF

References


Al Ghazali, F. (2007). Critical discourse analysis: How can awareness of CDA influence teaching techniques? TESOL Arabia.

Al Ghazali, F. (2017). Awareness of critical discourse analysis underpins learners’ sociolinguistic competence and language use. Eurasian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 3(2), 349-366.

Ali, S. (2011). Critical language awareness in pedagogic context. English Language Teaching, 4(4), 28-35.

Astuti, E. M. (2010). English zone for senior high school students year XII. Erlangga.

Bhabha, H. K. (1994). The location of culture. Routledge.

Blommaert, J., & Bulcaen, C. (2000). Critical discourse analysis. Annual Reviews of Anthropology, 29, 447-466.

Bloor, T., & Bloor, M. (2004). The functional analysis of English. Oxford University Press.

Boston, J. M. (2002). How to get away with things with words: An examination of written text. University of Birmingham.

Clark, R., & Ivanic, R. (1997). The politics of writing. Routledge.

Cots, J. M. (2006). Teaching ‘with an attitude’: Critical discourse analysis in EFL teaching. ELT Journal, 60(4), 336-345.

Dar, Z. K., Rahimi, A., & Shams, M.R. (2010). Teaching reading with a critical attitude: Using critical discourse analysis to raise EFL university students’ Critical Language Awareness (CLA). International Journal of Criminology and Sociological Theory, 3(2), 457-476.

Dudley-Evans, T. (2001). Genre analysis: An approach to text analysis for ESP. In R. M. Coulthard (Ed.), Advances in written text analysis (pp. 219-228). Routledge.

Emilia, E. (2011). Pendekatan Genre-Based dalam pengajaran Bahasa Inggris: Petunjuk untuk Guru [Genre based approach in English teaching: Teacher guide]. Rizqi Press.

Fairclough, N. (1989). Language and power. Longman.

Fairclough, N. (2010). Critical discourse analysis: The critical study of language. Routledge.

Feez, S. & Joyce, H. (1998). Writing skills: Narrative and nonfiction text types. Phoenix Education PTY Ltd.

Flowerdew, J. (2013). Discourse in English language education. Routledge.

Gramsci, A. (1971). Selection from the prison notebooks (Q. Hoare, & G. N. Smith, Trans.). Lawrence and Wishart.

Halliday. M. A. K., & Hasan, R. (1985). Language, context, and text: Aspects of language in a social-semiotic perspective. Deakin University Press.

Halliday, M. A. K., & Matthiessen, C. M. I. (2004). An introduction to functional grammar. Routledge

International Debate Education Association. (2003). The debatabase book: A must-have guide for a successful debate. IDEA Press Books.

Kincheloe, J. L. (2008). Critical pedagogy and the knowledge wars of the twenty-first century. International Journal of Critical Pedagogy, 1(1), 1-22.

Knapp, P. & Watkins, M. (2005). Genre, text, grammar: Technologies for teaching and assessing writing. UNSW Press.

Koutsantoni. D. (2006). Rhetorical strategies in engineering research articles and research theses: Advanced academic literacy and relations of power. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 5(1), 19-36.

Kress, G. (1993). Against arbitrariness: The social production of the sign as a foundational issue in critical discourse analysis. Discourse and Society, 4(2), 169- 191.

Kress, G., & Leeuwen, T. V. (2006). Reading images: The grammar of visual design. Routledge.

Kristina, D. (2011). Discourse analysis. UNS Press.

Leech, G. (2007). Politeness: Is there an east-west divide? Journal of Politeness Research, 3(2), 167-206.

Locke, T. (2004). Critical discourse analysis. Continuum.

Macken-Horarik, M. (2002). Something to shoot for. In A. M. Johns (Ed.), Genre in the classroom (pp. 1-17). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Martin, J. R. (2004). Positive discourse analysis: Power, solidarity, and change. Canaria de Estudios Ingleses, 4(9), 179-200.

Martin, J. R., & Rose, D. (2007). Working with discourse: Meaning beyond the clause. Continuum.

Martin, J. R. & White, P. R. R. (2005). The language of evaluation: Appraisal in English. Palgrave Macmillan.

McCarthy, M. J., & Carter, R. A. (2001) Ten criteria for a spoken grammar. In E. Hinkel & S. Fotos (Eds.), New perspectives on grammar teaching in second language classrooms (pp. 51-75). Lawrence Erlbaum

Rahimi, E., & Sharififar, M. (2015). Critical discourse analysis and its implication in English




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v7i2.16636

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Print ISSN: 2355-2794, Online ISSN: 2461-0275

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.