Indeks Kualitas Tanah pada Lahan Pengembangan Kopi Arabika di Kabupaten Bener Meuriah Provinsi Aceh, Indonesia

Muhammad Fachruddin, Sufardi Sufardi, Syakur Syakur

Abstract


Abstrak. Provinsi Aceh merupakan sentral utama produksi Kopi arabika yang dikelola secara organik. Dua kabupaten yang mengembangkan kopi arabika organik yaitu Kabupaten Aceh Tengah dan Bener Meuriah yang merupakan dataran tinggi dengan ketinggian 1500 hingga 1900 mdpl. Areal pengembangan kopi organik ini memiliki fisiografi perbukitan dengan jenis tanah yang beragam yang rentan akan terjadinya erosi, sehingga akan berpengaruh terhadap kualitas lahan dan produksi kopi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi dan pemetaan indeks kualitas tanah pada areal perkebunan kopi di Kabupaten Bener Meriah, Provinsi Aceh. Studi ini menggunakan metode survei deskriptif yaitu melalui pengamatan lapangan dan analisis laboratorium. Perhitungan indeks kualitas tanah (IKT) menggunakan kriteria Mausbach dan Seybold (1998) yang telah dimodifikasi Partoyo (2005). Parameter yang dianalisis meliputi karakteristik kimia tanah dan fisika tanah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan sangat baik (IKT = 0,80 – 1,00). Indeks kualitas tanah pada lahan pengembangan Kopi Arabika di Kabupaten Bener Meuriah, Provinsi Aceh secara umum tergolong baik walaupun nilai SQI antara satuan lahan bervariasi dari sedang hingga tinggi.

Soil Quality Index on Arabica Coffee Development Land in Bener Meuriah District, Aceh Province, Indonesia

Abstract. Aceh Province is the main center of arabica coffee production and is organically managed. There are two districts that develop organic Arabica coffee, namely Central Aceh and Bener Meuriah districts (altitude 1500-1900 m above sea level). This organic coffee development area has steep physiography with various soil types and is susceptible to erosion, with the result that it will affect the quality of the land and coffee production. This study aims to evaluate a soil map of soil quality index in a coffee plantation area in Bener Meriah Regency, Aceh Province. This study uses a descriptive survey method, namely by field observations and laboratory analysis. Calculation of the soil quality index (SQI) using the criteria of Mausbach and Seybold (1998) and modified by Partoyo (2005). Parameters were analyzed including soil chemical characteristics and soil physics. The results of the soil quality index showed eminent value, namely 0.80 – 1.00. In general, soil quality index on arabica coffee development land in Bener Meuriah Regency is classified as decent although the SQI value between land units varies from moderate to high.

 


Keywords


Indeks kualitas tanah; Lahan pertanian; Kopi Arabika; Fisika tanah; Kimia tanah

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.17969/rtp.v14i2.22048

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