KAJIAN MOLEKULER MEKANISME RESISTENSI MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS

Tristia Rinanda

Abstract


Abstrak. Program penanggulangan Tuberkulosis (TB) yang komprehensif seperti Directly Observed Treatment Shortcourses (DOTS) telah dijalankan di seluruh dunia sejak tahun 1995. Selama 2 dasawarsa, prevalensi TB menurun secara signifikan, namun tidak bia dipungkiri bahwa penyakit infeksi ini masih tetap ada dan menjadi masalah kesehatan di dunia, terutama di negara-negara berkembang. Saat ini dunia sedang menghadapi fenomena yang juga cukup meresahkan, yaitu munculnya kasus TB resisten obat. Fenomena ini membuat semakin kompleknya permasalahan terkait TB, seperti peningkatan morbiditas dan mortalitas serta peningkatan beban biaya pengobatan. Resistensi ini sangat terkait dengan terjadinya sejumlah perubahan dalam struktur genom Mycobacterium tuberculosis yang menurunkan bahkan menghilangkan efikasi Obat Anti Tuberkulosis (OAT). Tulisan ini membahas mengenai struktur genom Mycobacterium tuberculosis dan kaitannya dengan mekanisme resistensi terhadap OAT. Pemahaman mengenai aspek molekuler ini banyak digunakan dalam pengembangan berbagai teknik deteksi resistensi dalam kasus TB resisten obat.

Kata kunci: Tuberkulosis, resistensi, genom, obat anti tuberkulosis

Abstract. Comprehensive Tuberculosis eradication programs such as Directly Observed Treatment Short courses (DOTS) have been implemented worldwide since 1995. In the past two decades, the prevalence of Tuberculosis has significantly declined. However, it is undeniable that this infectious disease remains present as one of the health problems in the world, particularly in developing countries. Also, the world is currently facing an alarming phenomenon in the form of drugs-resistant Tuberculosis cases, which result in Tuberculosis-related issues of greater complexity such as the rise in morbidity and mortality as well as in medication costs. This resistance is closely related to a number of changes occurred in the structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome which reduce or even eliminate the efficacy of Anti Tuberculosis Drugs. This article discusses the structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome and its relationship with the resistance mechanism of Anti Tuberculosis Drugs. The understanding of this molecular aspect is used a great deal in the development of various resistance detection techniques in drugs-resistance Tuberculosis cases.

Keywords: Tuberculosis, resistance, genome, tuberculosis drugs


Keywords


Tuberkulosis, resistensi, genom, obat anti tuberkulosis Tuberculosis, resistance, genome, tuberculosis drugs

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