GAMBARAN NEUROIMAGING HIDROSEFALUS PADA ANAK

Afdhalurrahman Afdhalurrahman

Abstract


Abstrak. Hidrosefalus merupakan suatu pelebaran sistem ventrikel akibat tidak seimbangnya produksi dan absorbsi cairan serebrospinalis. Hidrosefalus kongenital biasanya tampak pada masa bayi. Pada masa neonatus gejala klinis belum begitu tampak, gejala yang paling umum dijumpai adalah iritabilitas dan anoreksia. Kadang-kadang dijumpai penurunan kesadaran ke arah letargi. Balita umumnya mengeluh nyeri kepala akibat peningkatan tekanan intrakranial dengan lokasi nyeri yang tidak khas dan disertai muntah di pagi hari. Selain itu dapat disertai penglihatan ganda yang jarang diikuti penurunan visus. Kepastian diagnosis diperoleh menggunakan pemeriksaan neuroimaging brain CT Scan dan brain MRI. Gambaran neuroimaging brain CT Scan hidrosefalus komunikan yaitu dilatasi ringan semua sistem ventrikel termasuk ruang subarakhnoid di proksimal daerah sumbatan, sedangkan hidrosefalus non komunikan menunjukkan adanya pelebaran ventrikel lateralis dan ventrikel III. Gambaran neuroimaging brain MRI hidrosefalus komunikan yaitu dijumpai dilatasi sistem ventrikel, termasuk ventrikel keempat, foramen luschka dan foramen magendie, sedangkan hidrosefalus non komunikan yaitu berupa dilatasi ventrikel yang disebabkan oleh tumor. 

Abstract. Hydrocephalus is a widening of the ventricular system due to the imbalance of production and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid. Congenital hydrocephalus usually appears in infancy. The clinical symptoms has not been visible in neonatal period, the most common symptom is irritability and anorexia. Sometimes encountered loss of consciousness toward lethargy. Toddlers generally complain of headache due to enhancement of intra cranial pressure with an atypical location of pain and vomit in the morning. Moreover, it can be rarely accompanied by double vision followed by the visual acuity decrease. Certainty of the diagnosis is obtained by using brain neuroimaging CT Scan and MRI. The neuroimaging brain CT Scan of communicant hydrocephalus describes mild dilatation of the ventricular system including all the subarachnoid space in proximal occlusion, whereas non communicant hydrocephalus shows a widening of the lateral ventricles and the third ventricle. The neuroimaging brain MRI of communicant hydrocephalus shows dilated ventricular system, including the fourth ventricle, foramen of Luschka and foramen of Magendie, on the other hand, non communicant hydrocephalus describes ventricular dilatation caused by the tumor.


Keywords


Hidrosefalus anak; neuroimaging; CT scan otak dan MRI otak Hydrocephalus in children; neuroimaging; brain CT Scan and brain MRI

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References


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