PERKEMBANGAN TERKINI PENELITIAN KUSTA SECARA BIOLOGI MOLEKULER

Mudatsir Mudatsir

Abstract


Abstrak. Penyakit kusta atau Morbus Hansen adalah penyakit kronik yang disebabkan oleh  Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae). Basil ini pertama menyerang saraf tepi, selanjutnya dapat menyerang kulit, mukosa mulut, saluran nafas atas, dan organ-organ lainnya. Penyakit kusta masih menjadi masalah kesehatan terutama di Negara-negara berkembang. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) mempunyai tingkat spesifitas dan sensitifitas yang tinggi serta dalam waktu yang cepat dapat mendeteksi M. leprae dari penderita kusta yang menunjukkan gejala klinis maupun penderita sub klinis. Amplifikasi gen M. leprae dapat dilakukan pada berbagai daerah gen yang berbeda dari M. leprae dan PCR dapat digunakan untuk medeteksi gen yang mengkode berbagai macam protein M. leprae. Variasi teknik PCR dilaporkan terus berkembang mulai dari PCR secara konvensional menggunakan single maupun nested primer bahkan Real Time PCR untuk mendeteksi M. leprae. Molecular typing untuk sekuensing M. leprae yang sangat populer adalah metode Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Metode ini dapat mengetahui strain spesifik dari  M. leprae.  akan diketahui dan sangat penting  khususnya untuk mempelajari epidemiologi kusta. Berdasarkan hasil pemetaan genom M. leprae yang telah selesai dilakukan regio dengan koordinat 2.785.435 bp dimana terjadi pengulangan TCC sekuen nukleotida. Regio TTC ini banyak diteliti untuk kuman M. leprae. Belakangan ini juga mulai dikembangkan lokus-lokus lain dari genom M. leprae, namun masih dalam tahap penelitian awal.

Abstract. Leprosy or Morbus Hansen is chronic disease resulting from an infection of Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae ) that firstly infect peripheral nerves and then it can infect skin, oral mucosa and upper respiratory tract and other organs. To date the leprosy disease constitutes major problem, particularly in the developing countries. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) has a hight specificity and sensitivity, and can to detect M. leprae in leprosy patients who showed clinical symptoms and patient sub-clinical. Gene amplification M. leprae can be done in various regions of different genes of M. leprae and PCR can be used to detect the genes that encode a variety of proteins of M. leprae. Variety of PCR techniques continue to evolve from conventional PCR using primers  single primer or nested primer and even Real Time PCR to detect M. leprae. Variable Number of Tandem Repeats is a very popular methot of molecular typing for sequencing the M. leprae and for studying the epidemiology of leprosy. Based on the mapping of the genome of M. leprae leprae has been completed with the coordinates 2.785.435 bp where there is repetition TCC nucleotide sequence. TTC region is widely studied for the M. leprae. Recently, it also started to develop other loci of the genome of M. leprae, but still in the early research stage.


Keywords


kusta; polymerase chain reaction; sekuensing; biologi molekuler leprosy; polymerase chain reaction; sequencing; molecular biology

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