PERAN INTERLEUKIN-10 PADA INFEKSI MALARIA

Nur Wahyuniati, Reza Maulana

Abstract


Abstrak. Malaria merupakan suatu penyakit infeksi yang memiliki patogenesis sangat kompleks. Teori imunologis merupakan salah satu teori utama yang berupaya menjelaskan secara lebih rinci dan komprehensif terkait patogenesis infeksi malaria. Interleukin-10, yang merupakan sitokin anti-inflamasi,memainkan peranan yang penting dalam regulasi respon imun pada host. Interleukin-10 menghambat pelepasan mediator-mediator pro-inflamasi dari monosit/makrofag, dan hal ini akan menghambat sekresi TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, G-CSF, dan GM-CSF. Interleukin-10 juga menghambat proliferasi dan juga sintesis sitokin sel T CD4+, termasuk produksi IL-2 dan IFN-γ oleh Th1 dan IL-4 dan IL-5 oleh Th2. Timbulnya komplikasi malaria berat ditentukan oleh keseimbangan antara kadar sitokin proinflamasi dan anti-inflamasi, yaitu berupa rasio IL-10 rendah. Rasio IL-10:TNF-α yang kurang dari 1 beresiko mengalami malaria serebral dan anemia berat, sebaliknya rasio lebih dari 1 sering ditemukan pada pasien hiperparasitemia.

Abstract. Malaria is an infectious disease which has a very complex pathogenesis. Immunological theory is one of the main theories that attempt to explain a more detail and comprehensive pathogenesis of malaria infection. Interleukin-10, which an anti-inflammatory cytokines, play an important role in the regulation of immune response in the host. Interleukin-10 inhibits the release of mediators of pro-inflammatory monocyte/macrophages, and it will inhibit the secretion of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, G-CSF and GM-CSF. Interleukin-10 also inhibits the proliferation and synthesis of CD4+ T cell cytokines, including IL-2 and IFN-γ by Th1 and IL-4 and IL-5 by Th2. The incidence of complications of severe malaria is determined by the balance between the levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, in the form of a low ratio of IL-10. The ratio of IL-10: TNF-α less than 1 is believed to have a risk of cerebral malaria and severe anemia, whereas the ratio more than 1 is often related to hyper parasitemia condition.


Keywords


malaria; interleukin-10; sitokin anti-inflamasi; anti-inflammatory cytokine

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References


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