Peran Latihan Fisik Teratur Terhadap Fungsi Memori dan Kognitif Wanita Pascamenopause

Zulkarnain Zulkarnain

Abstract


Abstrak. Menopause merupakan suatu keadaan yang ditandai dengan tidak adanya periode menstruasi selama 12 bulan terakhir akibat berhentinya fungsi ovarium. Wanita pascamenopause mungkin lebih rentan terhadap kehilangan memori dan kognitif daripada wanita premenopause akibat kekurangan estrogen. Kadar brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plasma juga menurun dengan bertambahnya usia. Hal ini terkait dengan penyusutan hippocampus dan defisit memori pada wanita pascamenopause. Bukti klinis menunjukkan bahwa, penurunan kadar estrogen dan BDNF di otak menimbulkan perubahan dalam memori, kognisi, suasana hati dan perilaku. Estrogen dan protein BDNF dapat membantu mempertahankan memori verbal dan meningkatkan kapasitas untuk belajar hal baru pada wanita pascamenopause. Interaksi estrogen dan BDNF juga dapat meningkatkan plastisitas sinaptik di otak, pertumbuhan sel neuron, dan neurogenesis hippocampal. Latihan fisik teratur atau aerobik dapat membantu mengendalikan sejumlah masalah fisik dan psikologis pada wanita pascamenopause, dan meningkatkan kesehatan otak serta plastisitas sinaps melalui peningkatan estrogen dan kadar BDNF plasma. Latihan aerobik intensitas sedang dapat memperbaiki dan meningkatkan sekresi estrogen dan ekspresi BDNF pada fase postmenopause. Kesimpulannya, latihan fisik teratur dapat berperan sebagai salah satu faktor protektif kuat dan penting untuk meningkatkan kesehatan otak, memori dan fungsi kognitif pada wanita pascamenopause.

Abstract. Menopause is a state of an absence of menstrual periods for 12 months caused by function of the ovaries ceases. Postmenopausal women may be more vulnerable to memory and cognitive loss than premenopausal women because of deficiency in estrogens. Circulating levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) also decline with advancing age. It would be related to shrinkage of the hippocampus and memory deficits in postmenopausal women. Clinical evidences show that, decreased level of estrogen and BDNF in the brain gives rise to modifications in memory, cognition, mood and behaviour. Estrogen and BDNF can help to maintain verbal memory and enhance the capacity for new learning in postmenopausal women. Interaction of estrogen and BDNF also enhances synaptic plasticity in the brain, neurite growth, and hippocampal neurogenesis. Aerobic or regular physical exercise may help control a number of physical and psychological problems in postmenopausal women, and improve brain health and sinaps plasticity via enhancing estrogen and plasma BDNF levels. Moderate intensity aerobic can improve and increase estrogen secretion and BDNF expression in postmenopause phase. In conclusion, regular physical exercise could represent an important and potent protective factor for improving brain health, memory and cognitive function in postmenopausal women.


Keywords


Latihan fisik teratur; estrogen; memori; fungsi kognitif; pascamenopausal; Regular physical exercise; memory; cognitive function; postmenopausal

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