FISIOLOGI SEPAKBOLA DALAM CUACA PANAS

Gaung Perwira Yustika

Abstract


Abstrak. Sepakbola dimainkan pada bermacam kondisi lingkungan, tidak terkecuali dengan faktor cuaca yang panas saat berlangsungnya pertandingan, yang bisa menjadi salah satu faktor kunci yang berpengaruh terhadap hasil pertandingan. Contohnya saja kemungkinan besar tim tamu yang bisa menang di negara jazirah Arab didapatkan data menurun 3% setiap kenaikan 1°C temperatur dibandingkan dengan tuan rumah yang secara statistik lebih mudah meraih kemenangan. Skuat tuan rumah telah mengalami aklimatisasi terhadap kondisi lingkungan dan terbiasa dengan bermain di bawah suhu yang panas.

Bermain di tempat yang panas dapat meningkatkan laju keringat dan vasodilatasi perifer untuk membuang kelebihan suhu di dalam tubuh, yang dapat berakibat dehidrasi dan kebutuhan metabolisme tubuh yang sedang memerlukan banyak energi. Pada sepakbola level elit tekanan dari faktor lingkungan menjadi perhatian penting baik untuk praktisi maupun pemegang kebijakan sepakbola. Di zona Uni Eropa, pertandingan sering diadakan di cuaca yang panas (contohnya di Madrid, Spanyol, 30C). Temperatur yang sering melebihi 30°C (maksimalnya: 35°) contohnya yang terjadi pada Piala Dunia Brazil 2014 dapat membuat para pemain tertekan terhadap kondisi suhu dan mengalami penurunan pada aspek teknis mengumpan sebesar 3%.

Kata kunci: sepakbola, lingkungan, panas.

 Abstract. Soccer is a sport play-able in various condition of environment, and one factor that affects this game is in heat situation, that can be one of key factor that change the match outcome. For the example is the big possibility that visiting team outside Arab countries gone to played at Gulf Region decreased winning possibility 3% for a increased 1°C temperature compared to the home team that easier to win under this circumstances. The home team had already aclimatized with the environment condition and often played in the heat temperature.

 

Played soccer in the heat can increased sweat rate and peripheral vasodilation as a result to released the extra heat from the body, which affected dehidration phase and more metabolism to make more energy. In the elite level, pressure from the enviromental factors attracted the attention of both practitioners and the policy’s holders. In the Uni European Zone, match was usually played in the heat (example: at Madrid, Spain, at 30 degree of celcius). Temperature that exceeds 30 degree of celcius (maximum at 35 degree) for the example at the previous world cup 2014 Brazil could made the players got stressed because of the heat and got problems, one of them is decreased 3% of passing accuracy.

Keywords: soccer, environment, heat.


Keywords


sepakbola, lingkungan, panas; soccer, environment, heat

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References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.24815/jks.v18i2.18007

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