Bat Coronavirus of Pteropus alecto from Gorontalo Province, Indonesia

Wenty Dwi Febriani, Uus Saepuloh, Ellis Dwi Ayuningsih, R. Suryo Saputra, Azhari Purbatrapsila, Meis Jacinta Nangoy, Tiltje Andretha Ransaleh, Indyah Wahyuni, Safriyanto Dako, Rachmitasari Noviana, Diah Iskandriati, Ligaya ITA Tumbelaka, Joko Pamungkas


Bats have been known as natural reservoirs for potential emerging infectious viruses, such as Lyssaviruses, Coronaviruses, Ebola viruses, Nipah virus, and many others. Because of their abudance in population, wide distribution and mobility, bats have a greater risk as source for zoonotic transmission than other animals. Despite the facts of their role as reservoirs for many pathogens, not until an epidemic of Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2003 and Middle-East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, that people pay much attention about coronavirus in bats. SARS-like virus also found in bats with a higher prevalence rate. This study aims to detect the coronavirus of bats in Gorontalo province Indonesia, characterization at the molecular level of the coronavirus genome and determining the level of kinship (through trees filogenetic). This study was conducted as part of bigger PREDICT Indonesia project, in particular to examine coronavirus in bats from Gorontalo province, Indonesia.  As many as  95 rectal swab samples collected from flying foxes (Pteropus alecto) were analyzed in the laboratory using Consensus Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique to amplify the target sequence from RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase (RdRp) gene with 434 basepair product, resulted 24 samples determined as presumptive positive. Eight out of 24 presumptive positive samples by PCR were analyzed further by nucleotide sequencing and confirmed coronavirus positive. Phylogenetic tree analyses to the eight coronavirus confirmed-sequences were constructed with MEGA-6.0 . The conclusion was 24 out of 95 samples suggested as presumptive positive to Bat CoV. Eight out of 24 samples were analyzed further by nucleotide sequencing and have similarities in the kinship. Three samples had the 98% nucleotide identity to BatCoV from Indonesia and five samples were 85-88% nucleotide identity to BatCoV from Thailand.

Full Text:



R. Achmaliadi, I.G. Maha Adi, Y.M. Hardiono, H. Kartodihardjo, C.H. Malley, D.A. Mampioner, E.G.T. Manurung, A. Nababan, L.B. Pangkali, A. Ruwindrijarto, L.L.M. Situmorang, C.V. Barber,. E. Matthews. “Keadaan Hutan Indonesia” Bogor, Indonesia: Forest Watch Indonesia and Washington D.C: Global Forest Watch. 2011.

P.D. Anindita, M. Sasaki, A. Setiyono, E. Handharyani, Y. Orba, S. Kobayashi, I. Rahmadani, S. Taha, S. Adiani, M. Subangkit et al. “Detection of coronavirus genomes in Moluccan naked-Backed fruit bats in Indonesia”. Arc Virol, doi: 10.1007/s00705-015-2342-1. 2015.

Dr S.J Anthony, Dr T. Goldstein, Dr D. Rejmanek, M.D. Sanchez, Dr T. Seimon, Dr J. Fair, Dr B. Schneider, Dr J. Epstein, Dr I. Lipkin. “Laboratory Protocols for PREDICT Surveillance”. PREDICT USAID Columbia University, version 2, pp.9. 2013.

C.H. Calisher, J.E. Childs, H.E. Field, K.V. Holmes, T. Schountz. “Bats important reservoirs host of emerging viruses”. Clin microbiol, vol 19, pp.531-545. 2006.

CDC Centers for Disease Conrol Prevention. “Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome”. [Internet]. [diunduh 2015 Desember 23]. Available at: 2015.

M.A. Gouilh, S.J. Puechmaille, J.P. Gonzales, E. Teehng, P. Kittayapong, J.C. Manuguerra. “SARS-coronavirus ancestor’s footprints in South-East Asian bat colonies and the refuge theory”. Infect Evol, vol 11, pp.1690-1702. 2011.

S. Heinrichs, K. Zahnke. The Fruit Bats of Sulawesi. BATS Magazine Media and Education, vol. 15, Des. 1997.

C.R. Mahon, D.C. Lehman, J.R.G. Manuselis. “Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology”. Maryland Heights: US, Elsevier. 2014.

L. Poon, Y. Guan, J. Nicholls, K. Yuen, J. Peiris. “The aetiology, origins, and diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome”. Lancet Infect, vol 4, pp. 663-671. 2004.

K. Tamura, G. Stecher, D. Peterson, A. Filipski, and S. Kumar. “MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. Mol. Biol. Evol”, vol 30, pp.2725-2729. Oct. 2013.

S. Wacharapluesadee, P. Duengkae, A. Rodpan, T. Kaewpom, P. Maneeom, B. Kanchanasaka, S. Yingsakmongkon, N. Sittidetboripat, C. Chareesaen, N. Khlangsap. “ Diversity of coronavirus in bats from eastern Thailand”. J Virol, doi: 10.1186/s12985-015-0289-1. 2015.

S. Watanabe, J.S. Masangkay, N. Nagata, S. Morikawa, T. Mizutani, S. Fukushi, P. Alviola, T. Omatsu, N. Ueda and K. Iha. “Bat coronavirus and experimental infection of bats, the Philippines”. Emerg Infect, vol 16, pp.1217-1223. 2010.

A.J. Whitten, G.S. Henderson, M. Mustafa. “Ekologi Sulawesi”. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press, 1987.

X. Xu, Y. Liu, S. Weiss, E. Arnold, S.G. Sarafianos, J. Ding. “Molecular model of SARS coronavirus polymerase; implication for biochemical function and drug design”. Nucleic acids Res, vol 31, pp.7117-7130. 2003.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright© 2016 | ISSN: 2503-4715 

Published by:
The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Syiah Kuala University
In cooperation with:
Center for Tropical Veterinary Studies of Syiah Kuala University
and Indonesian Veterinary Medical Association (PDHI)

Online Submissions & Guidelines Editorial Policies | Contact Statistics Indexing | Citations


Creative Commons License
is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.