ASPIRATED AND UNASPIRATED STOPS PRODUCED BY NON-NATIVE ENGLISH TEACHERS AT A PESANTREN IN ACEH, INDONESIA

Mawardi Mawardi, Agus Maulidiansyah, Mustafa Kamal, Ismuhu Nasai

Abstract


The English had spread by the rise of the colonial empire a long time ago, then spread by American's influence and power around the world until today and last spread because of the technology development and internet. Those spread gave many differences of English user itself and becoming English to be many varieties including nations which use English as the first language such as British English, American English, Australian English and else. Much more varieties were born of some new Englishes used as a second language such as Malaysian English, Singaporean English, and others. Indonesia does not claim legally English as a second language but many Indonesian schools teach English formally including “pesantren”. Pesantren is named for Islamic boarding school, there are many pesantrens in Indonesia including Aceh. There is one of Aceh’s pesantrens using English as the second language, located in North Aceh named Almuslimun Islamic Boarding School. This institution was selected as research location by the researcher for knowing aspirated and unaspirated stops of [k], [t] and [p] that are produced by non-native teachers. The researcher interviewed three participants in five to ten minutes per interview, it recorded in an audio recorder for evidence amount varieties of [k], [t], and [p] produced of this pesantren. Based on the data analysis the researcher analyzed that the nonnative English teacher of Almuslimun Islamic Boarding School Lhoksukon of North Aceh has some differences aspirated and unaspirated stops among participants.


Keywords


English varieties; phonology; aspirated stops; unaspirated stops

Full Text:

PDF

References


Echols, J. M., & Shadily, H. (2003). An Indonesian-English dictionary. Jakarta: PT.Gramedia.

Ellis, R. (1983). Understanding second language acquisition. New York: Oxford University Press.

Fromki, V., Hyams, N., & Rodman, R. (2003). An introduction to language. Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth.

Ladefoged, P., Barbara, B., & Russell, G. S. (2009). UCLA phonetics lab archive. Retrieved from http://archive.phonetics.ucla.edu/

Lewand, R. (2008). Relative frequencies of letters in General English plain text: From cryptographical mathematics. Retrieved from http://cs.wellesley.edu/~fturbak/codman/letterfreq.html

Wall, J. (1989). International phonetic alphabet for singers: A manual for English and foreign language diction. Dallas: Pst.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.